Answers to Questions on Climate of India
- Cherrapunji is situated on the windward side of the Garo and Khasi hills and Shillong on the leeward side. The Bay of Bengal branch of the SW Monsoon winds get trapped in the funnel shaped hills and shed their moisture in the windward side.
- The south east coast of India gets affected by tropical cyclones during October-November due to local variations in heat and moisture. The cyclones originate in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and travel west or north-west, in the Bay of Bengal and bring heavy rainfall. North-west India experiences westerly depressions coming from the Mediterranean Sea from December to February, these are however, cyclonic rains and beneficial to crops.
- Tamil Nadu, some parts of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, northern Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and western Uttar Pradesh get winter rain. This winter season is the season of growing crops so the rain is very much beneficial for the growing of wheat in north India and rice in Tamil Nadu.
- The west coast of India gets rain from the Arabian Sea Branch of the south west Monsoon winds. Due to the presence of high Western Ghats, heavy rainfall is caused in the west coast.
- Alternative hot and dry seasons, followed by rainy season from June to September. Four seasons- Hot dry season from March to May; SW Monsoon season from June to September; retreating Monsoon in October-November; cool and wet NE Monsoon from December-February.
- The hill stations in South India always have high ground temperature as the places are situated near the equator and even if the precipitation is in the form of snow flakes, it condense due to high ground temperature forming dense fog.
- The Bay of Bengal branch after reaching the slopes of the Himalayas cannot blow over and hence breaks into two branches-one blows over the Indo-Gangetic Plain causing rain and the other towards Myanmar. Thus places in the East get more rainfall than the places in the west.
- India has vast latitudinal extent which gives rise to Equatorial, Tropical and Temperate climate. Apart from this presence of high mountains also bring about many changes in the temperature and amount of rainfall.
- Tropical Monson type of climate. Characteristics: hot summers with heavy monsoonal rainfall from June to September.
- Mumbai is on the coast and in the tropics whereas Kanpur is in the interior of the country and therefore gets extremes type of climate. When the sun is in the southern hemisphere, Kanpur gets more slanting rays of sun than Mumbai. Mumbai is also moderated by sea breezes.
Answers to Questions on Soil
- Red soil is formed as a result of the denudation of the ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks of the Peninsular Plateau. Properties: i) light in texture, friable and porous, ii) deficient in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.
- Laterite soil is associated with the term ‘leaching’. This soil is found in the summits of Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Assam.
- Wheat: clayey loamy soil, well drained with small lime content, like alluvial soil. Cotton: black cotton regur soil. Bajra: red soil.
- Khadar: newer alluvial soil, darker in colour, finer particles, clayey and loamy. Found in lower valleys and deltas of rivers. Bhangar: older alluvial soil, light grey in colour, coarser particles and calcareous clay. Found 30m above sea level in river terraces.
- Black soil or regur soil is of volcanic origin. Cotton thrives best in this soil.
- Growing shelter belts and stopping over-grazing by selecting plots for rotational grazing.
- Red soil is found in the plateau regions, in the Peninsular India, Malwa, Chhota Nagpur Plateau, parts of south Karnataka, Goa, NE Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and large areas of Tamil Nadu. Red soil is friable and porous; deficient in humus, nitrogen, phosphoric acid and needs fertilizers.
- i) Sheet erosion: growing of forests, trees and grass-roots that hold the top-soil. Ii) Water logging: fertilizing and maintaining nutrients of soil and making it fit for cultivation. Iii) Gully erosion: plugging of gullies and construction of dams across rivers and streams to regulate the flow and prevent floods.
- Very fertile soil being brought down by rivers as well as rich in chemical ingredients.
- Red soil is rich in iron content.
Answers to Questions on Industry
1. i) The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin provides 90% of the raw material.
ii) Coal is easily available.
Iii) Abundant fresh water for processing, washing and dyeing jute.
iv) Humid climate for spinning and weaving yarn.
v) Cheap labour and cheap transport.
vi) Kolkata port facility.
2. i) The most important foreign exchange earner for the country.
ii) provides employment to millions of people.
iii)Cotton industry is basis of khadi and handloom industry, employing many people directly and indirectly, provides off-season income.
3. Sugar industry, migrating to Maharashtra. Longer crushing season, has no frost or fog, has large co-operative farms, access to best hybrid seeds, use of fertilizers and insecticides, the sucrose content is high and the factories are close to the fields, moist winds from the Arabian Sea.
4. Silk is produced in rural areas where rearing of silk-worm is carried on as it is labour intensive. Types of silk: Mulberry-silk worms. Non-mulberry-eri, tussar, muga.
5. Bagasse, used for making paper, cardboard, insulation board; molasses used for making plastics, synthetic rubber, power alcohol, rum, chemicals and for moderating tobacco for smoking.
6. Bokaro Steel Plant- Russia.
Rourkela- Krupps and Demag, Germany.
7. The main resources required are:
- Scrap or waste material
- Cheap transport
8. Heavy electrical require larger electrical output and produce heavier goods like turbines, transformers, etc. , whereas light electrical require less electricity and produce lighter articles like fans, bulbs and irons.
9. Raw materials derived from petroleum by-products, LPG and coal, located near refineries for naphtha and benzene.
10. This industry covers a larger category of essential and luxury products like television, telephone exchanges. Cellular telecom, electronic equipments, computers, defence, railways as well as the post and telegraph department.
The main resources required are:
Two centers: Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh and Bangalore in Karnataka.
Answers to Questions on Minerals
- Limestone is found in Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Bauxite is found in Panaji in Goa and Jamnagar district of Gujarat.
- Manganese is used in the production of steel. It makes the steel strong, removes impurities and makes it immune to rusting. Two principal buyers of manganese are USA and Germany.
- Lubricants, kerosene, Vaseline, tar, etc. Refineries: Trombay, Mumbai, Kochi, Koyali.
Two leading states in India
One country other than India
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Bihar
Pakistan and Sri Lanka
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa
Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa and Tamil Nadu
Sri Lanka and Bhutan
- The coal produced in Bangladesh is of poor quality-peat and lignite with large moisture content. It imports coal from India (West Bengal).
- Aluminium. It is used in making planes, automobiles, electrical equipment, utensils, rail wagons, household appliances.
- Orissa. Good quality haematite. It is used TISCO, IISCO, Rourkela, Durgapur, Sundargarh and Mayurbhanj.
- Iron-ore is used in the manufacture of iron and steel, a basic industry as well as the raw material for other important industries.
- India; ranks 4th in the world. Estimated coal reserves: 19, 60,000 million metric tones.
- Used as a raw material for making cement, fertilizers and as a fluxing agent in the making of steel.
Answers to Questions on Agriculture
- Cuttings are made from the superior mother-plant and planted in nurseries and later transplanted in plantations. They are 25cm high and get the special flavor and quality of the mother plant.
- Rabi: fields are bared, prepared and sown in September/October; harvested in February; winter crop, used to produce wheat and barley. Kharif: fields cleared, prepared in April/May, sown in May end and early June; harvested in September/October; summer crop: rice, cotton.
- i) Dependence on rain: government helps by well-irrigation, canals and dams.
ii) small holdings: government encourages co-operative farming.
iii) Outdated methods: government educates them and gives low rate and even interest-free loan.
iv) Can’t afford good seeds, fertilizers: government subsidized by government.
v) Pests and diseases: education in its utilization.
vi) Floods and drought.
5. Food-crops provide food to the farmer and his family, eg, rice, wheat, pulses, for subsistence. Commercial crops are grown to earn cash, industrial crops like cotton, tobacco.
|Crop||State heading production||Temperature when sowing||Temperature when ripening||Average rainfall||Rabi or kharif|
|Rice||West Bengal||18-32°C||28°C||150-300 cm||Kharif|
|Wheat||Uttar Pradesh||10-15°C||20°C||50-100 cm||Rabi|
6. Arabica, Robusta, Liberica. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.
7. Tobacco products are a large source of income, employment, tax and foreign exchange. India stands third in its production.
8. A revolution in agriculture to increase food-production, started in 1967-68.new varieties of maize, rice, wheat are grown by this method, new strategy is used, supply of improved seeds, machines , technology, chemical fertilizers, greater financial assistance, greater roles of co-operatives, etc.
9. Sett: cutting of two or three joints from the head of healthy cane and planting in equidistant furrows filled with fertilized soil. This method yields superior cane.
Ratoon: after harvesting the cane is cut close to the ground. The stem grows and produces a second crop called ratoon, saves time, labour and money, but stems remain thinner, weaker, with less sucrose.
10. Vegetable oils are healthier and have less fat content. Linseed oil is in great demand for industrial purposes. Oil extraction in mills provides employment to several people. Oil is also used in turpentine, resin, margarine, cosmetics and other industries.