Sonam’s E.V.E Questions
On 23rd Feb, Sonam wrote to us:
Please send the answers of the following e.v.e questions…….
a) What does E E Z stand for?
b) What is activated sludge?
c) What does SPM stand for? Mention a harm caused by it.
(d) Write short notes on : – 
(i) The Kyoto Protocol.
(ii) Inequitable consumption of energy in urban and rural areas.
(e) When was PETA established and what were its main functions?
Our Answers to the questions:
a) An Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a concept adopted at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (1982), whereby a coastal State assumes jurisdiction over the exploration and exploitation of marine resources in its adjacent section of the continental shelf, taken to be a band extending 200 miles from the shore.
b) Activated sludge: Product that results when primary effluent is mixed with bacteria-laden sludge and then agitated and aerated to promote biological treatment, speeding the breakdown of organic matter in raw sewage undergoing secondary waste treatment.
c) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) are the particulate having particle diameter less than 100µm, that tend to remain suspended in the atmosphere for a long period of time. Sea salt, soil dust, volcanic particles and smoke from forest fires are the natural sources of total SPM. Human activities like burning of fossil fuels, industrial processes, etc generate SPM.
Harmful effects: Ashes, smokes, and dusts can dirty and discolor structures and other property including clothes and furniture, speed their deterioration. They affect the airways, strongly dependent on size and chemical composition; the small fraction of 10 micrograms and smaller (so called PM10) is the most harmful as it can penetrate deep into the lungs, causing respiratory problems like asthma.
d) (i) Kyoto Protocol: The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. It is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
(ii) Inequitable consumption of energy in urban and rural areas: There is a considerable inequity in energy access within the country; the gap in consumption levels between urban and rural households; between administrative and geographical regions; and between the top and bottom economic classes of the population. National surveys state that in urban areas, people belonging to the top MPCE classes use more LPG and kerosene in comparison to the lower MPCE classes who use more firewood.
e) People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), founded in 1980, is the largest animal rights organization in the world.
PETA focuses its attention on the four areas in which the largest numbers of animals suffer the most intensely for the longest periods of time: on factory farms, in laboratories, in the clothing trade, and in the entertainment industry.