Akriti’s Biology Questions
Akriti’s second set of Bio Questions:
1-What is the difference between vaccination and sterilization?
2-what is meant by morula?
3-Arrange in a logical sequence:
A) implantation,ovulation,child birth,gestation,fertilization
B) coitus,ovum,sperm,sperm duct urethra,vagina
4- What is the effect of oversecretion of vasopressin?
5-Differentiate between enzyme and hormone
- Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by many pathogens. The material administrated can either be live but weakened forms of pathogens (bacteria or viruses), killed or inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified material such as proteins.
The term sterilization is used in many contexts. It could refer to:
a) The removal or destruction of all microorganisms, including pathogenic and other bacteria, vegetative forms, and spores.
b) An operation which renders an animal or human unable to procreate.
c) The process of eliminating or killing all the microbes in a food by heating, irradiating, etc. It is also the method by which all contaminations are completely destroyed.
2. A morula (Latin “morus”, mulberry) is an embryo at an early stage of embryonic development, consisting of cells (called blastomeres) in a solid ball contained within the zona pellucida. It is produced by embryonic cleavage, the rapid division of the zygote.
3. Arrange in a logical sequence:
A) implantation, ovulation, child birth, gestation, fertilization
Answer: ovulation, implantation, fertilization, gestation, child birth
B) coitus, ovum, sperm, sperm duct, urethra, vagina
Answer: sperm, sperm duct, urethra, ovum, vagina, coitus
4. Over-secretion of vasopressin (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, SIADH) and resultant hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) may cause brain diseases and conditions of the lungs such as small cell lung carcinoma. It can also cause hyponatremia.
5. An enzyme is a protein substance produced in living cells, influencing chemical reactions within plants or animals without being changed itself. Functioning as organic catalysts, enzymes help break down food so that it can be digested. The enzyme pepsin hydrolyses protein chains in the mammalian stomach to initiate digestion.
A hormone is a substance formed in the endocrine glands, entering the blood stream and affecting or controlling the activity of some organ, or of cells or tissues. Adrenalin and insulin are hormones. In plants hormones are carried in the protoplasm and act similarly. The difference between an enzyme and a hormone is due to the purpose they are designed to serve. Hormones control aspects of growth and metabolism such as the breaking of the voice and the development of musculature during puberty in males; and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females. Enzymes mediate all reactions in cells, their structure and synthesis being determined by DNA.
Akriti srivastava sent these questions via email:
a) False: Your skin cells multiply.b) True: this is due to osmosis.
Phenotype of an animal is denoted by a pair of alleles. According to the question, Black fur alleles are BB, brown fur alleles are bb. When they are crossed the offspring will receive one allele from each parent. therefore the genotype of the offspring will be Bb. Since B is dominant over b, so the phenotype of the offspring will be black fur.
The stomatal presence in the bark of tree is minimal hence preventing the loss of water.
To avoid direct sunlight and therefore minimising loss by evaporation.
(1)In this process, oxygen is utilized and carbon dioxide is
given out by plants
(2)It is destructive( Catabolic) process.
(3)Respiration is performed by all loving cells of plants
at all tines i.e independent of light and chlorophyll
(4)Respiration results in a loss of dry weight of the plants
as carbon dioxide is formed by breakdown of the food
material. This CO2 at once escapes from the plant body.
(1)Here, carbon dioxide is utilized, and oxygen is given out
(2)It is a constructive process
(3)Photosynthesis is performed only in presence of sunlight
by the green cells. This process proceeds only for a limited
period but it is more vigorous than the process of respiration
(4)Photosynthesis results in grain in dry weight due to
formation of sugar starch which is accumulated in body of plant.
- Procedure: take few fresh hydrilla plants in a glass beaker which is filled with water. a pinch of KhCO3 should be added to it.
- a large funnel should be inverted over the plants.
- Over the end of the funnel invert a test tube which is filled with water.
- Keep the entire apparatus exposed to the sun.
- After some time it can be observed that there are some gas bubbles in the test tube. These gas bubbles are oxygen bubbles that have escaped from the plant and have got collected in the test tube.
A similar experiment is given here:
Due to the lack of photosynthesis in this place, stored starch is used up, thus the plant is de-starched
a) Leaves turning limp: this means that the leaves have wilted due to excessive loss of water.
b) You have spelled it wrong. The right spelling is hexose. It refers to a sugar such as glucose which has 6 atoms of carbon in a molecule.
When the test tube is full of the gas, remove it carefully and bring a glowing splinter near the mouth of the test tube. it starts burning vigorously proving that the gas is oxygen.